CoA biosynthesis

Coenzyme A (CoA) is an important cofactor (acyl-chain carrier) for many cellular functions including the citrate cycle and fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism. Vitamin B5, also known as pantothenate is the precursor for CoA biosynthesis. Pantothenate synthesis takes place in plants, fungi and some bacteria, whereas animals salvage pantothenate from diet and CoA biosynthesis from pantothenate is present in most organisms. Plasmodium falciparum utilises pantothenate from host and converts it to CoA, whereas Toxoplasma gondii possesses the four enzymes required for the generation of pantothenate from the branched chain amino acid valine. Piroplasma species possess the ability to synthesise CoA from pantothenate, but cannot synthesise pantothenate de novo. The enzymes pantetheine-phosphate adenylyltransferase and holo-[ACP] synthase are missing in the gene models of all three Piroplasma species.


Enzyme EC Number Gene id
Dephospho-CoA kinase TP01_0811
Pantothenate kinase TP04_0450
Pantetheine-phosphate adenylyltransferase Missing in annotation
Holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase Missing in annotation
Phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase Missing in annotation
Phosphopantothenate-cysteine ligase Missing in annotation
Apo-Acyl carrier protein none TP02_0962


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Sources and fates of metabolites


Substrate Source pathways Product Fate pathways
Pantothenate Host CoA Pyruvate metabolism, Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle
Methylene-THF Recycling of folate THF Recycling of folate
Cysteine Host