Glutamate metabolism

Glutamate and glutamine are non-essential amino acids in both Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum as in humans, whereas glutamate is an essential amino acid utilised from host in Cryptosporidium species. This is because the 2-oxoglutarate, the TCA cycle intermediate required for glutamate synthesis cannot be synthesised as the TCA cycle enzymes are missing in most of Cryptosporidium species. Although Cryptosporidium muris possess TCA cycle, the enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase and aspartate transaminase involved in glutamate synthesis are absent in the Cryptosporidum species. The ecological niches of gastric glands of stomach for C. muris and epithelial cells of small intestine for Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis provide them with the advantage of their ability to fulfil amino acid requirements from the host. These species possess the enzyme, glutamate-ammonia ligase and therefore can de novo synthesise glutamine. Cryptosporidia possess the capability to de novo synthesise proline from glutamate as in humans and in T. gondii  [1]. The genes for all the enzymes involved in this process are present in C. muris gene models.


Enzyme EC Number Gene id
Glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase CMU_015130
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase CMU_016970
Glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase CMU_035430
Hexosephosphate aminotransferase CMU_019860
Glutamate 5-kinase CMU_037180
Glutamyl-tRNA synthetase CMU_024700
Glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase CMU_028890
L-glutamate ammonia ligase CMU_021000


List of genes annotated as tRNA-Glu in C. muris genome


CMU_038100 CMU_042550


List of genes annotated as tRNA-Gln in C. muris genome


CMU_011460 CMU_016780


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Sources and fates of metabolites


Substrate Source pathways Product Fate pathways
D-Fructose-6P Glycolysis Glucosamine-6P Aminosugars metabolism
    L-Proline Proline metabolism