CoA biosynthesis

Coenzyme A (CoA) is an important cofactor (acyl-chain carrier) for many cellular functions including the citrate cycle and fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism. Vitamin B5, also known as pantothenate is the precursor for CoA biosynthesis. Pantothenate synthesis takes place in plants, fungi and some bacteria, whereas animals salvage pantothenate from diet and CoA biosynthesis from pantothenate is present in most organisms. Plasmodium falciparum utilises pantothenate from host and converts it to CoA, whereas Toxoplasma gondii possesses the four enzymes required for the generation of pantothenate from the branched chain amino acid valine. Cryptosporidium species possess the ability to synthesise CoA from pantothenate, but cannot synthesise pantothenate de novo. Of the enzymes involved in the conversion of pantothenate to CoA, pantetheine-phosphate adenylyltransferase is missing in gene models of all three Cryptosporidium species.


Enzyme EC Number Gene id
Dephospho-CoA kinase Chro.20045
Pantothenate kinase Chro.70552
Pantothenate kinase Chro.80038
Pantetheine-phosphate adenylyltransferase Missing in annotation
Holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase Chro.80544
Phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase Chro.30116
Phosphopantothenate-cysteine ligase Chro.40256
Apo-Acyl carrier protein none Missing in annotation


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Sources and fates of metabolites


Substrate Source pathways Product Fate pathways
Pantothenate Host CoA Pyruvate metabolism
Methylene-THF Recycling of folate THF Recycling of folate
Cysteine Host