Redox metabolism

Redox metabolism is an important metabolic pathway in all apicomplexans. This pathway shows the series of oxidation/reduction activities involved in removal of oxidative radicals such as superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and other toxic nucleophiles produced from different metabolic reactions. These reactive oxygen species cause oxidative damage to DNA, lipids and proteins. There are several antioxidant systems present in cells to protect them from these damages. This includes enzymes such as superoxide dismutase which reduces superoxide anion to H2O2 and catalase which reduces H2O2 to water and oxygen. The enzyme peroxiredoxin also reduces H2O2. The oxidised peroxiredoxin can be reduced back by thiols such as glutathione and thioredoxin. The glutathione system consists of glutathione and the enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase [1]. Glutathione is a tripeptide of glutamine-cysteine-glycine and synthesised de novo in two reactions steps. This glutathione synthesis is also included in this pathway. Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase catalyse reduction of oxidative radicals by oxidising glutathione. Glutathione can be reduced back by glutathione reductase [1]. Although glutathione synthase and glutathione S-transferase are present in Piroplasma species, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase are absent in the gene models. Another redox protein thioredoxin is important in reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides and its partner thioredoxin reductase catalyses reduction of oxidised thioredoxin using NADPH as electron donor. Catalase is also absent in Piroplasma species.

 

Enzyme EC Number Gene id
Peroxiredoxin 1.11.1.15 TA06770
Peroxiredoxin 1.11.1.15 TA17250
Peroxiredoxin 1.11.1.15 TA19270
Peroxiredoxin 1.11.1.15 TA19495
Superoxide dismutase (Fe) 1.15.1.1 TA16635
Superoxide dismutase (Fe) 1.15.1.1 TA17190
Ribonucleotide di-P reductase 1.17.4.1 TA05060
Ribonucleotide di-P reductase 1.17.4.1 TA06715
Ribonucleotide di-P reductase 1.17.4.1 TA09665
Thioredoxin reductase 1.8.1.9 TA04645
Glutathione S-transferase 2.5.1.18 TA20750
gamma-Glutamylcysteine synthetase 6.3.2.2 TA03765
Glutathione synthase 6.3.2.3 TA19700
Thioredoxin none TA03015
Thioredxin none TA03340
Thioredoxin none TA04450
Thioredxin none TA07040
Thioredoxin none TA07275
Glutaredoxin none TA11820
Thioredoxin none TA12365
Thioredxin none TA15270
Thioredxin none TA15980
Thioredoxin none TA20675
Glutaredoxin none TA21260