CoA biosynthesis

Coenzyme A (CoA) is an important cofactor (acyl-chain carrier) for many cellular functions including the citrate cycle and fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism. Vitamin B5, also known as pantothenate is the precursor for CoA biosynthesis. Pantothenate synthesis takes place in plants, fungi and some bacteria, whereas animals salvage pantothenate from diet and CoA biosynthesis from pantothenate is present in most organisms. Plasmodium falciparum utilises pantothenate from host and converts it to CoA, whereas Toxoplasma gondii possesses the four enzymes required for the generation of pantothenate from the branched chain amino acid valine. Piroplasma species possess the ability to synthesise CoA from pantothenate, but cannot synthesise pantothenate de novo. The enzymes pantetheine-phosphate adenylyltransferase and holo-[ACP] synthase are missing in the gene models of all three Piroplasma species.

 

Enzyme EC Number Gene id
Dephospho-CoA kinase 2.7.1.24 Missing in annotation
Pantothenate kinase 2.7.1.33 TA08490
Pantetheine-phosphate adenylyltransferase 2.7.7.3 Missing in annotation
Holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 2.7.8.7 Missing in annotation
Phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase 4.1.1.36 TA14440
Phosphopantothenate-cysteine ligase 6.3.2.5 TA12810
Apo-Acyl carrier protein none TA14690

 

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Sources and fates of metabolites

 

Substrate Source pathways Product Fate pathways
Pantothenate Host CoA Pyruvate metabolism, Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle
Methylene-THF Recycling of folate THF Recycling of folate
Cysteine Host