Glutamate metabolism

Glutamate and glutamine are non-essential amino acids in both Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum as in humans, whereas glutamine is an essential amino acid utilised from host in Piroplasma species. This is because glutamine synthetase ezyme which catalyses glutamate to glutamine conversion is absent in these Piroplasma species. The favourable ecological niches of these parasites within hosts and the absence of parasitophorous vacuoles provide these parasites with the advantage of their ability to fulfil several amino acid requirements including asparagine, glutamine and proline from the host. The activity of aspartate transaminase enzyme of this pathway was assayed by Kiama et al in Theileria parva schizont and transamination of oxaloacetate with glutamate plays an important role in the carbon metabolism of this parasite [1].

 

Enzyme EC Number Gene id
Glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-specific) 1.4.1.2 BBOV_III009680
Glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-specific) 1.4.1.4 BBOV_IV010390
Glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase 2.3.2.5 BBOV_IV003560
Aspartate transaminase 2.6.1.1 BBOV_III010960
Hexosephosphate aminotransferase 2.6.1.16 BBOV_IV000250
Glutamyl-tRNA synthetase 6.1.1.17 BBOV_III011840
Glutamyl-tRNA synthetase 6.1.1.17 BBOV_IV010640
Glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase 6.1.1.18 BBOV_III006400
gamma-Glutamylcysteine synthetase 6.3.2.2 BBOV_I002580
Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase Glu synthesizing 6.3.5.5 BBOV_III003590
Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase 6.3.5.7 BBOV_I001000

 

List of genes annotated as tRNA-Glu in B. bovis genome

 

BBOV_III010330 BBOV_III010370 BBOV_V000480

 

List of genes annotated as tRNA-Gln in B. bovis genome

 

BBOV_I002020 BBOV_II004910 BBOV_V000240

 

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Sources and fates of metabolites

 

Substrate Source pathways Product Fate pathways
D-Fructose-6P Glycolysis Oxaloacetate Pyruvate metabolism, Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle
Glutamine Host 2-oxoglutarate Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle
    gamma-glutamylcysteine Redox metabolism
    Glucosamine-6P Aminosugars metabolism
    Carbamoyl-P Pyrimidine metabolism